This survey was conducted to examine the association between hope, happiness, life satisfaction and risk behaviours in a sample of adolescents resident in the AHRI Demographic Surveillance Area (DSA). The survey includes age, gender, and a range of questions related to hope, happiness and life satisfaction. It also includes questions on whether respondents had ever used alcohol, dagga (cannabis), tik (methamphetamine), buttons (Mandrax), whoonga (heroin), ecstasy, or other drugs.
This survey was preceded and informed by a qualitative study involving key informant interviews and focus group discussions with adolescents regarding their conceptions of hope, happiness and life satisfaction. The Snyder Hope Scale was used as an exploratory starting point, but from the qualitative data it emerged that the Snyder Scale did not fully capture respondents' conceptualization of hope. We developed a new hope scale derived from the qualitative data. This included eight questions related to hope. The items aimed to address the issues raised in the qualitative work relating to hope and risk behaviour and included risk related to individuals not considering the future, i.e. living in the moment; hope providing a way to cope with current adversity, preventing risk behaviour; and hope related to a future orientation and an associated sense of control. These were scored in interviews using a Likert Scale.
Data from this survey were linked to data from the DSA on household and individual socio-economic characteristics (HSE data), including an index constructed from household asset ownership and the highest school grade attained.
Kind of Data
Unit of Analysis
Emergent properties, Hope, Adolescent risk behavior, Socio-economic status
Africa Health Research Institute
The study was conducted at a site within the AHRI DSA. The DSA is located near the market town of Mtubatuba, 250 km north of Durban in UMkhanyakude, a sub-district of Hlabisa.
Eligibility was limited to a sub-region within the DSA. Adolescents aged 15-18 years were eligible for inclusion.
Producers and sponsors
LSHTM, University of Manchester
Africa Health Research Institute
AHRI Research Data Management Team
Research Data Management
AHRI Data Collection Team
AHRI Community Engagement Team
Participants meeting the age inclusion criteria were randomly selected from the DSA database.
Dates of Data Collection
The representative of the Receiving Organization agrees to comply with the following conditions:
1. Access to the restricted data will be limited to the Lead Researcher and other members of the research team listed in this request.
2. Copies of the restricted data or any data created on the basis of the original data will not be copied or made available to anyone other than those mentioned in this Data Access Agreement, unless formally authorized by the Data Archive.
3. The data will only be processed for the stated statistical and research purpose. They will be used for solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations. Data will not in any way be used for any administrative, proprietary or law enforcement purposes.
4. The Lead Researcher must state if it is their intention to match the restricted microdata with any other micro-dataset. If any matching is to take place, details must be provided of the datasets to be matched and of the reasons for the matching. Any datasets created as a result of matching will be considered to be restricted and must comply with the terms of this Data Access Agreement.
5. The Lead Researcher undertakes that no attempt will be made to identify any individual person, family, business, enterprise or organization. If such a unique disclosure is made inadvertently, no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered and full details will be reported to the Data Archive. The identification will not be revealed to any other person not included in the Data Access Agreement.
6. The Lead Researcher will implement security measures to prevent unauthorized access to licensed microdata acquired from the Data Archive. The microdata must be destroyed upon the completion of this research, unless the Data Archive obtains satisfactory guarantee that the data can be secured and provides written authorization to the Receiving Organization to retain them. Destruction of the microdata will be confirmed in writing by the Lead Researcher to the Data Archive.
7. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the Data Archive will cite the source of data in accordance with the citation requirement provided with the dataset.
8. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the Data Archive.
9. The original collector of the data, the Data Archive, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
10. This agreement will come into force on the date that approval is given for access to the restricted dataset and remain in force until the completion date of the project or an earlier date if the project is completed ahead of time.
11. If there are any changes to the project specification, security arrangements, personnel or organization detailed in this application form, it is the responsibility of the Lead Researcher to seek the agreement of the Data Archive to these changes. Where there is a change to the employer organization of the Lead Researcher this will involve a new application being made and termination of the original project.
12. Breaches of the agreement will be taken seriously and the Data Archive will take action against those responsible for the lapse if willful or accidental. Failure to comply with the directions of the Data Archive will be deemed to be a major breach of the agreement and may involve recourse to legal proceedings. The Data Archive will maintain and share with partner data archives a register of those individuals and organizations which are responsible for breaching the terms of the Data Access Agreement and will impose sanctions on release of future data to these parties.